Australia used to be separate colonies. They had different sized train tracks, (so you couldn’t go directly through to another colony), They didn’t share water/rivers and any other resources such as food, mines and precious things. Then people go t together and made a debate on if they became one nation. The colonies had to give up some of their power to do that though, so federation was less likely than unlikely. Each colony had their own difficulties. Tasmania was still getting over their big convict past, New South Wales was bragging about being the ‘Mother Colony’, Western Australia felt isolated from the rest of them, South Australia were proud about being settled by free settlers (not convicts), Victoria had flourished in the gold rush and their population had soared, Queensland were debating whether to divide into Northern, Southern and Central Queensland and Northern Territory felt neglected under South Australia’s control. Before federation happened, they made Melbourne the Capital City but that caused problems with the rest of the states. In 1901 when there was federation, they built Canberra, named it the Capital City, and made a government. They all lived happily ever after!